Manual Introduction to acid-base chemistry(en)(19s)

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Chapter 12 – Acid-Base Chemistry

The molecule was identified by screening a library of nucleoside-capped peptoids for binding to the yeast 26S proteasome in a crude extract. The hit was resynthesized and shown to block 19S RP-mediated protein unfolding in vitro and proteasome-mediated turnover of p27 in HeLa cells. Macrocyclic aminoacyl-AMP analogs have been developed to inhibit non-ribosomal peptide synthetase amino acid adenylation domains selectively by mimicking a cisoid ligand binding conformation observed in crystal structures.

In contrast, these macrocycles do not inhibit aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, which are mechanistically closely related, but bind their ligands in a distinct transoid conformation. These compounds are potent inhibitors of the cysteine adenylation domain activity of the yersiniabactin siderophore synthetase HMWP2 and, unlike the corresponding linear aminoacyl-AMP analogs, do not inhibit protein translation in vitro. Selective small molecule inhibitors of non-ribosomal peptide synthesis should provide a powerful means to study the biological functions of non-ribosomal peptide natural products and a potential avenue to develop novel antibiotics.

We show that tethering rodlike polymers onto solid surfaces by their chain ends with a moderate grafting density can lead to highly oriented anisotropic self-assembled monolayers SAM with thickness identical to the diameter of single chain through liquid crystalline ordering. The polymers employed for this study were di- or triblock copolymers composed of poly n-hexylisocyanate PHIC , a rodlike polymer, and poly 2-vinylpyridine P2VP , a surface-reactive coil.

Planar nematic ordering occurred to the PHIC chains when the monolayer was exposed to the vapor of selective solvents. Flexible transparent conducting films with sodium dodecyl sulfate-dispersed singlewalled carbon nanotubes SWCNTs were prepared by a spray method and were further immersed in various acids. An important challenge in developing ultra-sensitive surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy SERS platforms lies in the creation of nanoscale hot spots, locations where the electromagnetic field is greatly concentrated. Even when this is successful, finding these hot spots is a difficult task.

We describe a novel chemical microsphere patterning technique utilizing contact masking during silanization for bonding silver nanoparticles preferentially to geometrically restricted sites. Small bifunctional linkers i. The microspheres limit the extent of nanoparticle aggregation and are large enough to be visible by optical microscopy leading in most cases directly to the location of the hot spots and hence the most intense SERS signals.

A novel microfluidic pumping system is presented which consists of spatially defined palladium features on a gold surface and which incorporates either hydrazine or N,N-dimethylhydrazine as fuel. By choosing the appropriate fuel, it is possible to control the direction of pumping. The emergence and continuing global spread of the highly virulent avian influenza H5N1 has raised concerns of a possible human pandemic. Several approved anti-influenza drugs effectively target the neuraminidase NA , a surface glycoprotein that cleaves terminal sialic acid residues and facilitates the release of viral progeny from infected cells.

The first crystal structures of group-1 NAs revealed that although the binding pose of oseltamivir was similar to that seen in previous crystallographic complexes, the loop adopted a distinct conformation, opening a new cavity adjacent to the active site. Here we show that the loop is able to open into significantly wider conformations than seen in the crystal structures, through explicitly solvated MD simulations of the apo and oseltamivir-bound forms of tetrameric N1.

We find that motion in the loop is coupled to motion in the neighboring loop, which expands the active site cavity even further. Furthermore, in simulations of the oseltamivir-bound system, the loop approaches the closed conformation, suggesting that the loop switching motion may be more rapid than previously observed. The reaction of 1,1,4,4-tetrakis[bis trimethylsilyl methyl]-1,4-diisopropyltetrasilayne 1 with cis- and trans-butenes produced cis- and trans-3,4-dimethyl-1,2-disilacyclobutenes 2a and 2b, respectively. The reactions proceeded in a stereospecific manner.

The reaction of 1 with phenylacetylene produced 1,2-disilabenzene derivative as a mixture of the two regioisomers, one of them being characterized by X-ray crystallography. We report the first example of alternating copolymerization of a polar vinyl monomer and carbon monoxide using vinyl acetate. This is also the first nonradical pathway for polymer synthesis with vinyl acetate, one of the most inexpensive and readily available polar vinyl monomer, as a major component.

Moreover, alkynyl-conjugated Knoevenagel products are produced from bisalkynyl methyl acetates. In such a case, the reaction is chemoselective as the 1,3-acetyl migration takes place through the alkoxyalkyne group in preference over the phenylalkyne group. The resulting E -alkynylenone unit suffers metal-catalyzed cyclization into the furyl ring, generating a copper I carbene species.

We report here on the use of adaptive nanowires for addressing the key surface fouling problem of electrochemical sensors. Effective resistance against surfactant fouling is obtained by switching magnetically the surface orientation of alkanethiol-coated gold nanowires containing a short nickel segment between horizontal and vertical positions to allow the transducer to perform the measurement and reset it to the protection mode between successive measurements. Such on-demand protection and minimization of surface-fouling are indicated from prolonged series of stripping-voltammetric measurements of cadmium in the presence of gelatin, albumin, or Tween Such on-demand protection capability should facilitate practical sensing applications of electrochemical devices.

Two different mechanisms in which Glu was present as protonated or deprotonated residue were considered. The energetic profiles show lower barriers as the protonated glutamate is involved. The lowest activation energy is obtained in the case of zinc dication while the other metals show very high energetic barriers, so that methionine aminopeptidase can be in principle recognized as a dizinc enzyme.

Reactive spin-polarized free radicals r , with non-Boltzmann population of spin states were produced by laser flash photolysis of benzil dimethyl monoketal or of 2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl diphenyl phosphine oxide the superscript symbol indicates electron spin polarization. The relative cross sections for spin exchange Rex and chemical reaction Rrxn were achieved through computer simulation of the TR-EPR spectra.

The addition of dodecanethiol to a solution of oleylamine-stabilized gold nanoparticles in chloroform leads to aggregation of nanoparticles and formation of colloidal crystals. In the latter, gold nanoparticles encapsulate an impurity nucleus. All crystalline structures exhibit fcc or icosahedral packing and are terminated by and planes, which leads to truncated tetrahedral, octahedral, and icosahedral shapes.

The aggregation mechanism is discussed in terms of classical and other nucleation theories. Turnip yellow mosaic virus TYMV is an icosahedral plant virus with an average diameter of 28 nm and can be isolated in gram quantities from turnip or Chinese cabbage inexpensively.

In this study, it was selected as a prototype bionanoparticle for time-resolved fluoroimmuno assay TRFIA. Two types of reactive amino acid residues were employed to anchor luminescent terbium complexes and biotin groups based on orthogonal chemical reactions. While terbium complexes were used as luminescent signaling groups, biotin motifs acted as a model ligand for protein binding. The bioconjugation results were confirmed by MS and Western blot analysis. Steady-state and time-resolved luminescence study of the dual-modified viruses demonstrated that the spectroscopic properties of the Tb complex are unperturbed by the labeling procedure.

The dual-modified particle was probed by fluorescence resonance energy transfer FRET experiments using avidin labeled with an Alexa fluorophore, which bound to the biotin on the surface of the particle, as an energy acceptor, and terbium complexes as an energy donor.

The emission and excitation spectra of the dual-labeled TYMV particle displayed residual virus fluorescence and Tb luminescence upon ligand-centered excitation. The Tb luminescence lifetime was 1. Our studies show that the two reactive sites can communicate with each other on the surface of a nanoscale biological assembly. We present a study of the growth and thermal stability of hexanethiol C6 films on GaAs by direct recoil spectroscopy with time-of-flight analysis. We compare our results with the better known case of C6 adsorption on Au In contrast to the two-step adsorption kinetics observed for Au surfaces after lengthy exposures, data for C6 adsorption on the GaAs surface are consistent with the formation of a single dense phase of C6 molecules at lower exposures.

On the contrary, in solution preparation, dense phases can only be obtained on GaAs for long alkanethiols and after lengthy immersions. The C6 layer has a first desorption peak at K, where partial desorption of the alkanethiol molecules takes place. Fits to the desorption curves result in a 1 eV adsorption energy, in agreement with a chemisorption process.

The possibility of forming dense, short-alkanethiol layers on semiconductor surfaces from the vapor phase could have a strong impact for a wide range of self-assembled monolayer applications, with only minimal care not to surpass room temperature once the layer has been formed in order to avoid molecular desorption. We report the fabrication and characterization of neutravidin-conjugated silica nanobeads doped with a ruthenium-complex luminophore and functionalized with antihuman CD3, antihuman CD28, and an acid-sensitive polymer.

We observed that the nanobeads were readily delivered into Jurkat T leukemia cells by endocytosis, transported into lysosomes and subsequently into the cytoplasm as revealed by pH-sensitive luminescence.

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Since signs of cytotoxicity were not observed, the reported nanobeads could be an excellent and nontoxic building block for efficient intracellular transporters. On the basis of intensity loss of vibrational peaks attributed to neutral PTCDI-C8, we obtain a charge carrier density of 2. We propose a unique mechanism to explain this behavior involving monomer modification of the catalyst, which generates multiple catalyst species when multiple monomers are present. Thus, the barrier to site epimerization is very low and high polymerization rates are possible even when the chain wags prior to every insertion.

Quantitative generation of monomer-inserted products is complicated by slow initiation kinetics followed by fast polymerization kinetics. Furthermore, a 4M1P-appended ligand was isolated from a polymerization reaction monomer:catalyst by column chromatography followed by multiple recrystallizations. NMR suggests a second diastereomer not isolated is formed from a 1,2-insertion of opposite stereoselectivity.

That reversible reaction represents an unusual, if not unique, example of an oxidation-state change in a metal induced by coordination of a dative ligand. We report the inhibitor fingerprints of seven matrix metalloproteases, representing all five established families of this important class of enzymes, against a highly diversified small-molecule library.

Journal of the American Chemical Society | Vol , No 25

High-throughput screenings were efficiently conducted in microtiter plate format, providing a rapid and quantitative determination of inhibitor potency across the panel of enzymes. Despite similarities in substrate preferences and structural homologies within this class of enzymes, our findings revealed distinct patterns of inhibition for each MMP against varied chemical scaffolds. The resulting inhibitor fingerprints readily facilitated the identification of inhibitors with good potency as well as desirable selectivity, potentially minimizing adverse effects when developing such leads into candidate drugs.

The strategy also offers a novel method for the functional classification of matrix metalloproteases, on the basis of the characteristic profiles obtained using the diverse set of inhibitors. This approach thus paves the way forward in lead identification by providing a rapid and quantitative method for selectivity screening at the outset of the drug discovery process.

  1. Nature of Acids and Bases.
  2. Advances in Databases: 15th British National Conference on Databases, BNCOD 15 London, United Kingdom, July 7–9, 1997 Proceedings.
  3. Osteoarthritis : diagnosis and medical/surgical management.

This paper reports a surface functional monomer-directing strategy for the highly dense imprinting of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene TNT molecules at the surface of silica nanoparticles. It has been demonstrated that the vinyl functional monomer layer of the silica surface can not only direct the selective occurrence of imprinting polymerization at the surface of silica through the copolymerization of vinyl end groups with functional monomers, but also drive TNT templates into the formed polymer shells through the charge-transfer complexing interactions between TNT and the functional monomer layer.

The high capacity and fast kinetics to uptake TNT molecules show that the density of effective imprinted sites in the nanoshells is nearly 5 times that of traditional imprinted particles. A critical value of shell thickness for the maximum rebinding capacity was determined by testing the evolution of rebinding capacity with shell thickness, which provides new insights into the effectiveness of molecular imprinting and the form of imprinted materials.

These results reported here not only can find many applications in molecularly imprinting techniques but also can form the basis of a new strategy for preparing various polymer-coating layers on silica support. Dynamic regions of proteins often play essential roles in function, assembly, or maturation of macromolecular complexes.

When X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy are used to investigate macromolecular structures, information about these dynamic regions is lost because of conformational disorder or flexibility. Structural studies on the precursor capsid conformations of the lambdoid bacteriophage HK97, a model system for macromolecular maturation, reveal that essential regions tend to be disordered at early maturation stages. In the Prohead II intermediate, the regions that have the greatest disorder are the N-terminal residues and the E-loop, a region involved in the formation of inter-subunit cross-links.

The N-terminus of the subunits in the 13 MDa procapsid is sufficiently dynamic to be studied by solution nuclear magnetic resonance NMR spectroscopy. NMR measurements enabled the identification and assignment of resonances to specific residues, assessment of the region's behavior within the context of the capsid, and monitoring of changes in these residues during the maturation process. No resonances are observed for the fully mature Head II capsid, which is consistent with its completely ordered structure.

NMR spectroscopy complements the current X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy data of HK97 by providing key information about the behavior of essential dynamic regions only inferred by other techniques. X-ray crystallography of collagen model peptides has provided high-resolution structures of the basic triple-helical conformation and its water-mediated hydration network. Vibrational spectroscopy provides a useful bridge for transferring the structural information from X-ray diffraction to collagen in its native environment.

The vibrational mode most useful for this purpose is the amide I mode mostly peptide bond C O stretch near cm The current study refines and extends the range of utility of a novel simulation method that accurately predicts the infrared IR amide I spectral contour from the three-dimensional structure of a protein or peptide. Monitoring the major amide I peak as a function of temperature gives sharp thermal transitions for both peptides, similar to those obtained by circular dichroism spectroscopy, and the Fourier transform infrared FTIR spectra of the unfolded states were compared with polyproline II.

The simulation studies were extended to model early stages of thermal denaturation of Pro-Pro-Gly Dihedral angle changes suggested by molecular dynamics simulations were made in a stepwise fashion to generate peptide unwinding from each end, which emulates the effect of increasing temperature. Simulated bands from these new structures were then compared to the experimental bands obtained as temperature was increased. The similarity between the simulated and experimental IR spectra lends credence to the simulation method and paves the way for a variety of applications.

The centered icosahedral cluster resembles packing in intermetallic compounds and belongs to the emerging class of intermetalloid clusters. The clusters were structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction in compounds with potassium cations sequestered by 2,2,2-crypt or crown-6 ether. They were also characterized in solution by electrospray mass spectrometry. This method offers the possibility to use NMR relaxation data for detailed structure characterization of such systems provided the structures of individual domains are available.

The proposed approach extends the concept of using long-range information contained in the overall rotational diffusion tensor. In contrast to the existing approaches, we use both the principal axes and principal values of protein's rotational diffusion tensor to determine not only the orientation but also the relative positioning of the individual domains in a protein. This is achieved by finding the domain arrangement in a molecule that provides the best possible agreement with all components of the overall rotational diffusion tensor derived from experimental data.

The accuracy of the method and its sensitivity to domain positioning are also tested using computer-generated data for three protein complexes, for which the experimental diffusion tensors are not available. In addition, the proposed method is applied here to determine, for the first time, the structure of both open and closed conformations of a Lyslinked diubiquitin chain, where domain motions render impossible accurate structure determination by other methods. The proposed method opens new avenues for improving structure characterization of proteins in solution.

A general synthetic route to the resonance-stabilized pyrazine-bridged bisdithiazolyl framework, involving the reductive deprotection of 2,6-diaminopyrazine-bisthiocyanate and cyclization with thionyl chloride, has been developed. Its crystal structure has been determined at several temperatures. In this manuscript we report that oxidative cleavage reactions can be used to form oxocarbenium ions that react with pendent epoxides to form bicyclic epoxonium ions as an entry to the formation of cyclic oligoether compounds.

Bicyclic epoxonium ion structure was shown to have a dramatic impact on the ratio of exo- to endo-cyclization reactions, with bicyclo[4. We predict, from computer modeling and simulation in partnership with experiment, a general strategy for synthesizing spherical oxide nanocrystals via crystallization from melt. Our simulations demonstrate, in quantitative agreement with experiment [Science , , ], that Ti dopant ions change the shape of CeO2 nanocrystals from polyhedral to spherical. We rationalize this morphological change by elucidating, at the atomistic level, the mechanism underpinning its synthesis.

This shell inhibits the evolution of nucleating seeds at the surface thus rendering it amorphous during cooling. Crystallization emanates radially from the nucleating seed, and because it is encapsulated by an amorphous shell, the crystallization front is not compelled to express energetically favorable surfaces.

Accordingly, after the nanoparticle has crystallized it retains this spherical shape. A typical animation showing the crystallization with atomistic detail is available as Supporting Information. From this data we predict that spherical oxide nanocrystals can be synthesized via crystallization from melt in general by suppressing nucleating seed evolution at the surface thus forcing the nucleating seed to spontaneously evolve in the bulk.

16.1 Introduction to Acids and Bases

Nanospheres can, similar to zeolitic classifications, constitute Secondary Building Units SBUs and can aggregate to form nanorods and nanoporous framework architectures. Here we have attempted to simulate this process to generate models for CeO2 and Ti-doped CeO2 nanorods and framework architectures. Such structures are difficult to characterize using, for example, Miller indices; rather we suggest that these new structural materials may be better described using minimal surfaces.

We report a combined experimental and computational study of the proline effect in model dipeptides Pro-Gly and Gly-Pro. Gas-phase protonated peptide ions were discharged by glancing collisions with potassium or cesium atoms at 3 keV collision energies, and the peptide radical intermediates and their dissociation products were analyzed following collisional ionization to anions.

Open-ring intermediates were found in which loss of an H atom was energetically preferred over backbone dissociations. This represents a viable single-step route to the target compounds in commercial yields for semiconductor applications. The built-in Cl functionalities are specifically designed to facilitate selective growth compatible with CMOS processing. The results combined with first principles density functional theory are used to elucidate the structural, thermochemical, and vibrational trends throughout the general sequence of ClnH6-nSiGe and provide insight into the dependence of the reaction kinetics on Cl content in the products.

The decomposition of a series of ruthenium metathesis catalysts has been examined using methylidene species as model complexes. All of the phosphine-containing methylidene complexes decomposed to generate methylphosphonium salts, and their decomposition routes followed first-order kinetics. The formation of these salts in high conversion, coupled with the observed kinetic behavior for this reaction, suggests that the major decomposition pathway involves nucleophilic attack of a dissociated phosphine on the methylidene carbon.

This mechanism also is consistent with decomposition observed in the presence of ethylene as a model olefin substrate. Versatile alkylation reactions give access to symmetric, homoleptic nonsymmetric, and heteroleptic symmetric hexaalkylated 1,2-diphosphonium derivatives as bottleable salts in high yields. A series of 1,2-diphosphonium salts has been isolated and characterized, representing prototypical phosphorus analogues of ethane. Additionally, the solid-state structures for four derivatives have been determined crystallographically.


Nonsymmetrically substituted derivatives of 1,2-diphosphonium cations enable the direct observation of 1J PAPB coupling constants for two tetracoordinate phosphorus centers. The synthetic approaches promise access to a vast array of derivatives and will provide means to the systematic development of phosphorus analogues of hydrocarbon chemistry. The kinetics and efficiency of the energy transfer process were studied by femtosecond time-resolved laser spectroscopy.

This observation is found to be due to the involvement of QD surface states in the energy transfer process from the photoexcited QDs to the molecular energy acceptor. The construction of artificial triple helical structures with oligonucleotides containing non-nucleosidic phenanthrenes and pyrenes is described. The polyaromatic building blocks, which are used as connectors between the Hoogsteen strand and the Watson-Crick hairpin, lead to a significant stabilization of intramolecular triple helices.

Description of the relative orientation of pyrene building blocks is rendered possible by the observation of exciton coupling in the circular dichroism spectra. In addition, the formation of heterodimeric triple helical constructs is explored. Again, the polyaromatic residues are found to have a positive effect on the stability of these structures. The results are important for the design and construction of nucleic-acid-based, triple helical architectures.

Furthermore, they will help in the development of analogues of biologically important, naturally occurring triplex structures. The complexes decompose upon warming to yield OPPh3, and in one case this was shown to occur by an intramolecular process through crossover experiments using double-labeling oxo and phosphine.

Exfoliated oxide nanosheets such as Ti0. Sequential adsorption of these oppositely charged nanosheets from their colloidal suspensions yielded multilayer ultrathin films while their simple mixing produced lamellar flocculates. Eliminating carbonate ions from the reaction system was found to be essential for successfully achieving the sandwich structures.

AFM observations revealed alternate dense tiling of LDH nanosheets and oxide nanosheets onto a substrate surface. These basal spacing values are compatible with the sum of thickness of LDH nanosheets and corresponding oxide nanosheets.

  • Handbook of forensic science.
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  • Kinetic Theory of Gases in Shear Flows: Nonlinear Transport (Fundamental Theories of Physics).
  • The Concept of Passivity in Husserls Phenomenology?
  • Corrosion Behaviuor Of Stressed Magnesium Alloys;
  • Acids and Bases;
  • [원서] Lower S. K. - Introduction to acid-base chemistry(en)(19s)!
  • TEM images of flocculated samples displayed lamellar features with two different constituent layers appearing alternately. Adenosine deaminases ADAs from human, bovine, and Plasmodium falciparum sources were analyzed by kinetic isotope effects KIEs and shown to have distinct but related transition states. The ADA from Plasmodium falciparum PfADA is essential in this purine auxotroph, and its inhibition is expected to have therapeutic effects for malaria. Therefore, ADA is of continuing interest for inhibitor design.

    Stable structural mimics of ADA transition states are powerful inhibitors. The differences in intrinsic KIEs reflect structural alterations in the transition states. Diaryliodonium salts containing the 2-thienyl group as an example of an electron-rich heteroaromatic moiety proved to be very potent precursors for the nucleophilic, regioselective no-carrier-added nca radiofluorination of various arenes.

    Because the solvent system definition depends on the solute as well as on the solvent itself, a particular solute can be either an acid or a base depending on the choice of the solvent: HClO 4 is a strong acid in water, a weak acid in acetic acid, and a weak base in fluorosulfonic acid; this characteristic of the theory has been seen as both a strength and a weakness, because some substances such as SO 3 and NH 3 have been seen to be acidic or basic on their own right. On the other hand, solvent system theory has been criticized as being too general to be useful.

    Also, it has been thought that there is something intrinsically acidic about hydrogen compounds, a property not shared by non-hydrogenic solvonium salts. For example: [25]. This theory is also useful in the systematisation of the reactions of noble gas compounds , especially the xenon oxides, fluorides, and oxofluorides. Mikhail Usanovich developed a general theory that does not restrict acidity to hydrogen-containing compounds, but his approach, published in , was even more general than Lewis theory.

    This defined the concept of redox oxidation-reduction as a special case of acid—base reactions. Acids and bases interact, and the most stable interactions are hard—hard and soft—soft. This theory has found use in organic and inorganic chemistry. The model assigned E and C parameters to many Lewis acids and bases. Each acid is characterized by an E A and a C A. Each base is likewise characterized by its own E B and C B.

    The E and C parameters refer, respectively, to the electrostatic and covalent contributions to the strength of the bonds that the acid and base will form.

    The equation is. The W term represents a constant energy contribution for acid—base reaction such as the cleavage of a dimeric acid or base. The equation predicts reversal of acids and base strengths. The graphical presentations of the equation show that there is no single order of Lewis base strengths or Lewis acid strengths. The reaction of a strong acid with a strong base is essentially a quantitative reaction.

    For example,. In this reaction both the sodium and chloride ions are spectators as the neutralization reaction,. With weak bases addition of acid is not quantitative because a solution of a weak base is a buffer solution. A solution of a weak acid is also a buffer solution. When a weak acid reacts with a weak base an equilibrium mixture is produced. The equilibrium constant for this reaction can be derived from the acid dissociation constants of adenine and of the dihydrogen phosphate ion.

    1. Subdivision Surfaces.
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    7. 12.1 Lewis Acids and Bases.

    The notation [X] signifies "concentration of X". When these two equations are combined by eliminating the hydrogen ion concentration, an expression for the equilibrium constant, K is obtained. An acid—alkali reaction is a special case of an acid—base reaction, where the base used is also an alkali. When an acid reacts with an alkali salt a metal hydroxide , the product is a metal salt and water. Acid—alkali reactions are also neutralization reactions. In water, these break apart into ions:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

    For chemicals that can behave as acids or bases, see Amphoterism. Further information: Lewis acids and bases. Main article: HSAB theory. Main article: ECW model. Main article: Acid dissociation constant. Main article: Neutralization chemistry. Journal of Chemical Education. Bibcode : JChEd.. March Inorganic Chemistry 2nd ed. General Chemistry 4th ed.

    Pure and Applied Chemistry. In this document, there is no reference to deprecation of "oxonium", which is also still accepted, as it remains in the IUPAC Gold book, but rather reveals preference for the term "Hydronium". International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. Retrieved 9 May Retrieved 18 April Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas. Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry. Journal of the American Chemical Society. Journal of the American Ceramic Society. Acta Chemica Scandinavica.

    Inorganic Chemistry. Chemistry of the Elements. Oxford: Pergamon Press. Journal of Chemical Sciences.