New York, Farrar Straus, Editor, A Barthes Reader. Traditionally readers have approached works of fiction as verbal structures which reveal and generally make statements about a preexisting "real" subject. The writer may represent his subject directly, "imitating" in accordance with conventional understandings about the probable behavior of the human and the natural order; or he may render his subject indirectly by presenting a metaphor which stands for and usually implies a generalization about the same reality.
Thus traditional criticism was designed to judge the verisimilitude of fiction and to provide a way of understanding metaphor, allegory, and parable as symbolic statements. It is impossible, however, to discuss the fiction of Susan Sontag in critical terms derived from this essentially naturalistic tradition, just as Sontag herself has attempted to construct a new critical approach to do justice to those works of avant-garde artists whose rendering of the modern world she finds significant.
The tough, polemical essays collected in Against Interpretation and Styles of Radical Will are more impressive than Sontag's fiction thus far, which too often seems contrived to illustrate a doctrine. For Sontag, the final "most liberating value of art" is "transparency," which means experiencing "the luminousness of the thing in itself, of things being what they are. The function of the subject or material may be as much its opacity, its multiplicity, as the ease with which it yields itself to being incarnated by a determinate plot or action. While vestiges of naturalistic situations remain in Sontag's fiction her story "The Will and the Way," for example, seems to be an allegory concerning the image of women in modern life , "interpretation" is by definition more or less irrelevant.
The Benefactor is in its general outline a dream novel; its "thematic resource" is the problem of attaining selfhood and genuine freedom. Just as Sontag sees Montaigne's essays as "dispassionate, varied explorations of the innumerable ways of being a self," the hero of The Benefactor uses his dreams as a means of achieving freedom. That reconciliation is what I take to be freedom. Death Kit has as its concern the failure of a man who has no true self. Not really the same. Some people are their lives.
Others, like Diddy, merely inhabit their lives. Wholly successful or not, The Benefactor and Death Kit are haunting works, effective to the degree to which the reader can accept Sontag's powerful arguments elsewhere about the exhaustion of the naturalistic tradition. As the American critic E. Hirsch puts it, "Knowledge of ambiguity is not necessarily ambiguous knowledge. Novels The Benefactor. Death Kit. The Volcano Lover. In America.
XVIII Bibliography and Textual Criticism | The Year's Work in English Studies | Oxford Academic
New York, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, Jagger, Bianca. Janousch, Frantisek. Jensen, Jytte. Jewett, Jon. Johns, Jasper American painter. Johnson, Alex. Johnson, Diane American writer. Johnson, Greg American writer. Jolas, Maria. Jones, Paul. Jones, Robert. Jonsson, Steffan. Joyce, Julie A. Kan, Lilah. Kaniuk, Yoram Israeli novelist. Kaplan, Philip.
Kapuscinski, Ryszard Polish writer. Kardos, E. Katz, Al Attorney at Law. Kauffman, Stanley. Keleman, Fred filmmaker. Keller, Holm literary and theatrical high-technology development. Kellogg, Paul. Kellum, Dan. Kendall, Elizabeth. Kennedy, Adrienne American playwright. Kennedy, Robert. Kerr, Rachel Harvill Press. Kiefer, Anselm. Kiernan, Frances. Kilian, Karl. King, Kenneth American choreographer.
Kirsch, Adam. Kis, Danilo Yugoslav writer. Kissel, Sylvia. Kita, Lida. Kitaj, R. Knight, Gary. Knowlson, Jan. Kobata, Kazue Curator, translator, Japan contact. Koch, Kenneth American poet. Koch, Stephen American cultural jouranlist. Kodama, Maria companion, then wife of J. Borges, the Argentine writer. Koestenbaum, Wayne American author. Konrad, George Hungarian writer. Kopelev, Lev and Raissa Orlova Russian writers. Kopkind, Andrew Political journalist.
Kovalsky, Maxim. Kozloff, Max American art critic. Kozyra, Katarzyna. Krauze, Enrique Letras Libras. Krementz, Jill photographer, author, wife of Kurt Vonnegut. Kricorian, Nancy. Kropp, Lloyd. Kuhn, Hans Peter. Kujawinski, Frank. Kushner, Tony American playwright. Kustow, Michael. L - General file. Lame Duck Books John Wronoski, appraiser and book dealer. Lang, Jack. Langdon, Mayra. Lange, Klaus. Lapinel, Dean nephew of Maria Irene Fornes.
Lasch, Christopher American social historian. Laughlin, James. Lawitschka, Valerie. Lawrence, Barbara.https://freefisukaq.tk
The Melancholy Muse: Chaucer, Shakespeare, and Early
Leck, Mary. Lee, Jonathan Scott Knox College. Lehmann, Rosamond English writer. Lehndorff, Vera Veruschka, German artist. Leman, Gerard. Lemkhin, Mikhail Russian photographer. Lemkowitz, Bob. Leonard, Thomas C. Leverett, James. Levine, Don Eric Amherst comparative literature professor. Levine, Suzanne Jill writer, professor, translator. Levy, Adam. Lewis, Leslee graphic designer. Leyda, Jay Film historian. Lichtheim, George German intellectual. Liddelow, Eden Australian writer. Lifschultz, Lawrence.
Lightman, Alan writer, MIT professor. Lindenberger, Herbert.
Lindsay, Arto. Little, Allan BBC correspondent. Liu, Hongbin Chinese poet. Long, Lois. Lord, James. Lowe, Paul. Lowenfels, Walter. Lucien Goldschmidt, Ltd. Luddy, Tom American film producer. Lukacs, John American historian. Lummis, Doug American political scientist in Japan. M - General file. Magala, Slawomir Polish translator. Maher, Jan. Mailath, Sally. Mailer, Norman. Makso, Nancy. Malamud, Bernard American writer. Malcolm, Janet American writer, of the "New Yorker". Malraux, Florence. Mancia, Adrienne. Manson, Aaron writer and M.
Mantell, Hilary. Manzo, Sandro Italian gallery owner. Mapplethorpe, Robert American photographer. Marker, Chris. Martin, Lynne. Maso, Carole. Mathews, Harry. Matter, E. Mayhew, Alice. Mazzocco, Robert American writer. McAfee, Annalena. McCaffery, Larry literary critic. McCarthy, Mary American writer. McClatchy, J. McClure, Michael American poet. McDonald, Anthony. McDonald, Cynthia American social critic, journalist. McDonald, Dwight American social critic, journalist.
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Middlebrook, Diane. Miel, Jan. Miller, Arthur American playwright. Miller, Jonathan English theater and opera director. Miller, Karl. Miller, Mark Crispin. Milosz, Czeslaw Polish writer. Misrach, Richard American photographer. Molina Foix, Vincente Spanish screenwriter, director, actor. Monaco, James. Mooney, Ted. Moore, Michael James. Morain, Violette. Moramarco, Fred. Moravcsik, Julius. Morgan, Virginia photographer. Morley, Alison.
Mortier, Gerard Belgian artistic director of opera houses and international music festivals. Motion, Andrew. Mount, Thom. Mousavizadeh, Nader. Moyers, Scott Random House. Mumford, Sophia wife of Lewis Mumford. Munroe, Alexandra. Murdoch, Iris English novelist, Oxford Professor. Murphy, Reg then San Francisco Examiner publisher. Myers, John B.
Myerson, Michael. Myrdal, Gunnar Swedish sociologist. Nabokov, Dominique photographer. Nadas, Peter Hungarian writer. Nagel, Ivan German writer. Nama, George American artist. Nash, Ralph. Neier, Aryeh and Yvette. Nelson, Joan. Neri, Louise. Newhouse, Donald. Newman, Charles American critic, novelist. Oates, Joyce Carol American writer. Ocampo, Victoria Argentine writer, publisher. Oera, Truls Norwegian writer. O'Gorman, Ned editor at Random House.
Ohlrich, Cristina. Omura, June. Onassis, Jacqueline Kennedy. Ondaatje, Michael Sri-Lankan Canadian writer. Ono, Yoko Japanese artist and musician. Orwell, Sonia widow of George Orwell. Oshima, Kazuko Japanese American artist. Ostashevsky, Eugene Russian poet and translator. Ott, Katherine of Temple University, researching history of tuberculosis.
Ottinger, Ulrike. Oveis, Frank. Ozick, Cynthia American writer. P - General file. Pages, Elaine. Palanjian, Haig.
Sontag, Susan (1933–2004)
Paley, Grace American writer, political activist. Palmsterna-Weiss, Gunilla. Palsson, Egill. Pamuk, Orhan. Parkin, R. Patterson, Kraigm. Paulson, Jeannette. Paz, Octavio Mexican poet and critic. Pearce, Pamela Manche. Peck, Dale writer. Pellizzi, Francesco co-founder and editor of "Res". Penn, Arthur American film director. Penn, Irving American photographer. Peonides, Panicos. Perlin, Jake BAM film curator. Perrone, Peter screenwriter, actor, producer. Persico, Christina. Pesarrodona, Marta writer, Spanish and Catalan translator. Phillips, Tom English artist.
Phillips, William editor of Partisan Review. Piazza, Luis Guillermo. Pinckney, Darryl African American writer. Pincus-Witten, Robert. Poirier, Richard American literary critic. Pollitt, Katha. Polsky, Ned writer, sociologist. Polukhina, Valentina. Pope-Hennesey, John art historian. Powell, Mel American composer. Pratt, George C. Proffer, Carl. Proffer, Ellendea. Prose, Francine. Puig, Manuel Argentine writer.
Pulido, Shirley. Qey literary magazine of Will Heinrich and Noah Schwartzberg. Quandt, James Cinematheque Ontario. R - General file. Racine, Agnes artist. Raddatz, Fritz Germany literary journalist and editor. Rahv, Philip American literary critic. Ramsey, Nina. Rawson, Nicholas. Redgrave, Vanessa British actor. Reid, Gilbert. Remnick, David New Yorker editor. Reutersward, Carl Fredrik Swedish artist. Rich, Adrienne American poet. Richards, Renee. Richardson, John.
Richie, Donald American film critic, writer on Japan. Rieff, David son. Riesman, David Harvard Sociologist. Riggan, William. Rigoni, Mario A. Ringelheim, Joan. Roach, John. Roberts, Ronald Suresh. Robinson, Julia. Rodin, Merrill. Roditi, Edouard Franco-American writer, art critic. Rogers, Deborah English agent. Rogers, Nick photographer. Romano, Carlin literary critic. Rorem, Ned American composer. Rorty, Amelie. Rosenberg, Harold American art and literary critic.
Rosenfield, Jim. Rosenheim, Ned Sontag's professor at University of Chicago. Rosset, Barney Grove Press publisher. Rosten, Norman. Rotenberg, Tanja. Roth, Philip American writer. Roud, Richard American film critic. Roy, Arundhati Indian writer and political activist. Rubin, Leonard. Rudkin, Mark. March Rush, Norman. Rushdie, Salman British Indian writer. Russell, Francia. Russell, John. Ruth, Arne. Ruy-Sanchez, Alberto Mexican writer and editor.
Ryckwert, Joseph. S - General file. Sacks, Oliver English writer and neurologist. Said, Edward. Salamon, Janos. Salisbury, Harrison E. Salmon, Christian. Sami, Renate filmmaker. Sandarg, Robert author of books on Jean Genet. Sandig, Jochen. San Francisco Cinematheque. Santiago, Hugo. Satow, Toshi Tawaraya hotel. Sautereau, Natacha. Scarlet, Peter.
Scarpetta, Guy French editor. Schenk, Tatjana. Schlesinger, Arthur, Jr. Schneider, Peter. Schorske, Carl Princeton history professor. Schrader, Paul American film director, screenwriter. Schukies, [unknown]. Schulman, Grace. Schulman, Sheila. Schuster, Shlomit. Schwarcz, Luiz.
Schwartz, Morry publisher. Schwarz, Arturo Italian art critic. Schygulla, Hanna. Scull, Ethel and Robert modern art collectors. Seely, Robert, M. Seidensticker, Edmund American authority on Japanese culture. Sellam, Laetitia. Sempel, Peter filmmaker and photographer. Sennett, Richard American social theorist. Serotta, Edward documentary photographer. Seshadri, Vijay Indian writer. Seth, Aradhana Indian film and art director, sister of Vikram Seth. Seth, Vikram Indian writer. Setterfield, Valda. Shafer, Margaret Bard College.
Shah, Suman Indian writer. Shakespeare, Nicholas. Shamberg, Michael. Shattuck, Roger American critic. Shaughnessy, Brenda Japanese American writer. Shawn, Wallace. Sheinbaum, Stanley. Shiota, Chiaru. Shoemaker, Victoria. Shriver, Sargent. Sicherman, Marvin. Siems, Larry. Silverblatt, Michael American literary interviewer, critic. Sims, Peter chairman of the Yale Review. Skvorecky, Josef Czech novelist. Slavitt, Anne. Smith, [unknown] Japan scholar. Smith, Anna Deavere.
Smith, Patti American musician. Snow, Ed American writer. Sohmers Zwerling, Harriet. Sola, Marcela. Solnit, Rebecca writer. Solomon, Deborah Joseph Cornell biographer. Somenzi, Silvia. Sommer, Piotr. Spender, Stephen English poet, critic. Spiegelman, Art. Spies, Werner German art historian. Spooner, Casey musician in Fischerspooner. Stanica, George. Starr, Kenneth I. Stehlik, Milos. Stein, Douglas set designer. Stein, Elliot American film critic.
Stein, Jean. Steinbach, Meredith. Steiner, George writer and English professor. Stephane, Nicole French actor, film producer. Stermer, Dugald artist, graphic designer. Stern, Fritz and Elizabeth Sifton writers. Stewart, Susan Temple University. Stewart, Walker M. Straus, Dorothea wife of Roger Straus. Straus, Rachel dance critic, granddaughter of Roger Straus. Streep, Meryl actress. Sunder-Plassman, Andrea artist. Surratt Paul Goodman tribute.
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Varda, Agnes. Veloso, Caetano Brazilian musician. Vercelloni, Isa Tutino Italian writer. Viereck, Peter poet, critic. Villani, Tony filmmaker. Vinoly, Rafael South American architect. Voznesensky, Andrei Russian poet. Vulliamy, Ed English writer, journalist. W - General file. Wada, Junko Japanese performance artist. Wajda, Andrzej Polish filmmaker. Wakoski, Diane. Walcott, Derek. Walsh, Bernard.
Walsh, Robert Vanity Fair legal affairs editor. Wanger, Shelley. Warburg, Fredric J. English publisher. Warner, Marina English writer. Warshow, Paul critic. Waters, Alice American chef, owner of Chez Panisse. Weaver, Fritz. Wechsler, Judith American art historian. Weems, Marianne Director, Builders Association. Wenkart, Henny American writer, publisher. Werly, Jacqueline. Weschler, Lawrence American writer. West, Alison writer. West, Paul. Westling, Renee and Len.
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Worth, Irene. Wrong, Dennis American sociologist. Xirau, Ramon Mexican critic. Yang, Lian Chinese poet. Yates, Peter. Young, John Bell pianist. Young, Marguerite American writer. Youngerman, Jack American artist. Zagajewski, Adam Polish writer. Zank, Ric books and manuscripts dealer. Zannoni, Giovannella Italian film producer. Zeppetelli, John. Zerner, Henri. Zolt, Marvin accountant.
Zuckerman, Julie. Zurcher, Ariane. Unknown - General file. Bentivoglio, Leonetta Theater and dance journalist. Berlin [? Breslin, Charles P. Brodsky, Joseph Russian poet and essayist. Chester [? Childs, Lucinda American postmodern dancer and choreographer. Clarke, Esther. Donoughue, Bernard. Farber, Joyce. Fries, Kenny Poet. Grumbauch, Doris. Kobata, Kazue Japanese author and curator. Kollisch, Eva Feminist. Leibovitz, Annie Photographer. Neier, Aryeh Human rights activist. Rieff, David Son.
Ryle, Gilbert British philosopher. Sontag, Judith Sister. Sontag, Mildred Mother.