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When it is attached to oxygen O 2 , it is called oxyhemoglobin and its color is an intense light red arterial blood. In contrast, deoxyhemoglobin is the name given to reduced hemoglobin, that is, when it has lost oxygen and has a darker color venous blood. If hemoglobin is more oxygenated than normal it is called methemoglobin and has a red-brown hue.

What is a period? Menstruation 101

This is due to the intake of some medications or a congenital disease methemoglobinemia. As we have seen, deoxygenated blood is not blue. The blue tone that we see in our veins is due to an optical effect resulting from the interaction between the blood and the tissue that lines the veins.

Some animals, on the other hand, do have blue blood: decapod crustaceans, some spiders and scorpions, horsehoe crabs , cephalopods and other molluscs. When dealing with invertebrates, we must specify that instead of blood its internal liquid is called hemolymph , but in this post we will not distinguish hemolymph from blood for better understanding. The pigment responsible for the blue color of blood in these animals is hemocyanin. Its structure is quite different from that of hemoglobin, and instead of iron, it has a copper I atom at its center.

When hemocyanin is oxygenated, it is blue, but when it is deoxygenated it is colorless.

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There are some animals with green blood, such as some annellids worms , some leeches and some marine worms. Its respiratory pigment, called chlorocruorine , gives its blood a light greenish color when it is deoxygenated, and a little darker when it is oxygenated.

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Structurally, it is very similar to hemoglobin, since it also has an iron atom at its center. Unlike hemoglobin, it is not found in any cell, but floats in the blood plasma. Biliverdin is toxic, but these lizards are able to withstand high levels in their body. In the rest of vertebrates, if biliverdin levels are high because the liver can not degrade it to bilirubin , they cause jaundice, a disease that gives a yellowish color to the skin and corneas of the eyes.

But in species of lizards like Prasinohaema prehensicauda , the high presence of biliverdin could protect them against malaria, according to some research. The pigment responsible for this color is hemovanabine , a vanadium-containing protein, although it not transport oxygen , so its function remains unknown. Similarly, the yellowish, yellow-green and even orange color of the blood hemolymph of some insects is not due to the presence of a respiratory pigment, but to other dissolved substances that do not carry oxygen.

Some marine invertebrates have violet blood hemolymph , such as priapulids, sipunculides, brachiopods and some annelids. The responsible respiratory pigment is hemeritrin , which turns violet-rosacea when it is oxygenated.

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  7. In its deoxygenated form it is colorless. Like the rest of the respiratory pigments we have seen, hemeritrin is less efficient than hemoglobin when transporting oxygen. Finally, there is a family of fish called crocodile icefish whose blood is transparent. Actually, these are the only vertebrates that have lost hemoglobin. Similarly, erythrocytes are usually absent or dysfunctional. This strange anatomy is because they live in very oxygenated waters and their metabolism is very slow.

    In order for oxygen to reach all cells, it dissolves in the blood plasma, which distributes it throughout the body. To conclude, we have seen that in animals that require a respiratory pigment to deliver oxygen to all tissues, the color of blood or hemolymph will depend on the type of pigment that is present.

    In contrast, other animals that do not require respiratory pigments, have transparent blood or their color is due to other dissolved substances that have nothing to do with breathing. Esteu comentant fent servir el compte WordPress. Esteu comentant fent servir el compte Google. Esteu comentant fent servir el compte Twitter. Esteu comentant fent servir el compte Facebook. After the constriction of the spiral arteries, the endometrium starts to break away in pieces from the deeper layers of the uterus 3. This initial blood and tissue may appear dark red or brown, or even black because it takes longer to exit your body.

    As tissue breaks away, it leaves torn ends of blood vessels that continue to bleed 3,4.

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    This is where the bright red blood you may see during your period comes from. Eventually platelets pieces of cells involved in blood clotting are activated to group together and form a plug to stop the bleeding, bringing the period to an end 2. As bleeding slows toward the end of a period, it may once again appear darker red or brown. The uterine lining darkens the longer it takes to leave the body.

    The Color Of Blood

    Period blood clots are normal on the heaviest days of your period, and can appear deep red or almost dark black as well. Period flow typically becomes heavier on the second or third day of the cycle as the uterine lining sheds faster. Spotting is any bleeding that happens outside of your regular period. Some people experience spotting mid-cycle, also known as ovulation bleeding 4,5. Bleeding that mixes with fertile cervical fluid can appear light red or pinkish.

    Watery, pink vaginal discharge that occurs irregularly without a pattern and not related to your menstrual cycle may be a sign of cervical cancer and should be evaluated by a healthcare provider 6. If you have grayish discharge, this could be a sign of an infection. If you experience heavy bleeding with pieces of grayish tissue, this could be a sign of a miscarriage. Seeing a healthcare provider is a recommended for either situation. Reproductive and menstrual health is still gravely misunderstood, and pushed aside compared to other aspects of health.

    The lack of proper education and research on aspects of female health negatively impacts people globally in so many ways. Changes in the color of your period blood are not anything to worry about. Article was originally published on Oct. Read up to 38 articles about Birth Control in this category. Read up to 13 articles about Pleasure in this category. Read up to 16 articles about Bleeding in this category.

    Read up to 37 articles about Gender Equality in this category.